What are the types of bias?
From PsychWiki - A Collaborative Psychology Wiki
It is important to understand that there are many different types of biases described in the research literature and psychology. Every bias holds the same principles in mind such as a deviation of data, something extraneous or favoritism to there group or thought that make it bias. The most common categories in the field of psychology with some biases include the following:
Cognitive bias: Confirmation bias, Negative bias, Gender bias, Anchoring bias, Memory bias, Overconfidence effect, Positive outcome bias, Optimism bias, Attentional bias.
Social bias: Actor-observer bias, hindsight bias, Egocentric bias, Notational bias, Outgroup homogeneity bias, Projection bias, Self-serving bias, Trait ascription bias, cultural bias, correspondence bias.
Research bias: Social desirability bias, Measurement bias, Experimental bias, Design bias, Quantitative research bias, Qualitative research bias, Selection bias, Systematic bias, Choice-supportive bias Confirmation bias, Congruence bias, Distinction bias, Information bias, Omission bias, Outcome bias, Status quo bias, Unit bias, Zero-risk bias, Subject bias.
Example / Application
Optimism bias is being over-optimistic about the outcome of planned actions. It is clear that the professor in the first video is very confident about the Duncan principle study, as he expects that all the participants to leave in a disgruntled manner after waitng for a long time. He finds the participants behaviors, upon there departure, very amusing. The bias is that the professor is so sure that the results of the study, he neglects any other possible outcome and therefore is distraught over the findings as the last participant stays longer than expected, biasing his expected results.
Self-Serving Bias refers to individual tendency to attribute positive outcomes to personal factors, but attribute negative outcomes to external factors. The outcome to the study is not what the professor wanted, therefore he proceeded to blame Annie, his research assistant for bringing in the participant that altered the results to his study. He berated her for this unexpected outcome and if the outcome to thestudy was as expected, the professor would have gladly taken credit for the findings.
In Outcome bias, the professor is upet about his study and the resulted outcome in which the participant did not leave or become tired of waiting, he actually stayed longer than expected and the results did not reflect the hypothesized outcome by the professor. The quality of the results should be explored and the participants resilence should be examined rather than the studies un proven hypothesis alone. Past studies influenced the professor's perception of the results further upsetting him when the results were not present.