Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale
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"To describe the development and validation of the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale (STSS), a 17 item instrument designed to measure intrusion, avoidance, and arousal symptoms associated with indirect exposure to traumatic events via one’s professional relationships with traumatized clients." There are three factors: Intrusion, Avoidance, and Arousal. "Secondary traumatic stress has been defined as “the natural, consequent behaviors and emotions resulting from knowledge about a traumatizing event experienced by a significant other."
- 17 items
- 3 factors: Intrusion, Avoidance, Arousal
- "5-point, self-anchored rating scales, respondents were instructed to rate the extent to which their client population is traumatized (0 = not at all, 1 = mildly, 2 = moderately, 3 = severely, 4 = very severely) and the frequency with which their work addresses traumatic stress (0 = not at all, 1 = rarely, 2 = occasionally, 3 = often, 4 = very often)."
- "Evidence was found for reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and factorial validity."
- I had trouble sleeping.
- I felt discouraged about the future.
- I felt jumpy.
- Reminders with my clients upset me.
- I was easily annoyed.