Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale

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Summary: A scale that measures the development and validation of Secondary Traumatic Stress on individuals professional relationships.
Reference: Bride, B. E., Robinson, M. M., Yegidis, B. & Figley, C. R. (2004). Development and Validation of the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale. Research on Social Work Practice, 14, 27-35.
Citation: (Bride, Robinson, Yegidis & Figley, 2004))


"To describe the development and validation of the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale (STSS), a 17 item instrument designed to measure intrusion, avoidance, and arousal symptoms associated with indirect exposure to traumatic events via one’s professional relationships with traumatized clients." There are three factors: Intrusion, Avoidance, and Arousal. "Secondary traumatic stress has been defined as “the natural, consequent behaviors and emotions resulting from knowledge about a traumatizing event experienced by a significant other."


Sample items

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