PSY 322 Social Psychology Fall 2009

From PsychWiki - A Collaborative Psychology Wiki

Jump to: navigation, search

Extra Credit: Identification and Application

  1. Develop your ability to identify statistical concepts by searching the world around you -- TV, movies, internet, online newspapers, online magazines, youtube, etc.
  2. Develop your ability to apply your understanding of the topic by (1) stating the definition of the concept, and (2) explaining how the example illustrates the definition of the concept.
  3. Post example and explanation online so that each student can benefit collectively from the examples and applications of each other.

FYI - also post your CIN number to identify the source of the information


Contents


Fundamental Attribution Error

CIN: 111222333 (10)

Definition: According to the textbook, the fundamental attribution error is "the tendency to overestimate the extent to which people's behavior is due to internal, dispositional factors, and to underestimate the role of situational factors.

Example: Idiot Parking a Car

Application: After watching the video, what was your reaction? Was the driver an idiot for smashing into the other car for no reason? Was the driver a jerk for not leaving a note or trying to amend for his actions? Most people tend to explain OTHER people's behavior as due to their "personalities". But are there "situational" reasons for the driver's actions? Maybe the driver was rushing to the hospital for a medical emergency? The fundamental attribution error may have occurred in this case if you overestimated the "personality" explanations for the drives behavior instead of thinking of possible "situational" factor that could account for the behavior. Notice that the caption for this video is "Idiot Parking a Car". That caption IS the fundamental attribution error because we have no way of knowing the true cause of hte behavior, so attributing the bad driving to personality causes is a potential error.

Confounds

CIN: 111222333 (10)

Definition: According to class, "a confound exists if something other than the intended constructs exist in the materials or procedures to impacts the independent variable or dependent variable."

Example: Stephen Colbert's Fancy Feast

Application: In the example, Stephen Colbert discusses an experiment from the American Association of Wine Economists that tested "Can People Distinguish Pate from Dog food?" In the study, the participants were asked to taste test each type of food, and then identify which was the dog food and which was the pate. The results of the study were that 83% of the people could not identify dog food from pate. Were there confounds in the study? Stephen Colbert identified a confound when he said that "These people were either eating really great dog food or really cheap pate". If the dog food was higher quality and/or the pate was lower quality, then participants may be judging whether the food was dog food or pate by the quality of the food. Thus, "quality" is a confound because it is something other than the intended constructs that are impacting the dependent variable. He identified another confound when he asked what type of people would agree to this study after learning they had to eat dog food! That confound is a self-selection bias in that maybe only a particular type of person would submit to this study, thus biasing the results. A final type of confound was shown when Stephen Colbert ate the cat food in the video in a fancy drinking glass. While we don't know how the researchers presented the food to the participants in the study, another way to potentially confound the results is by presenting each type of food in a different way.

Correlation does not equal causation

CIN: 111222333 (10)

Definition: According to the textbook, there are three possibilities when a correlation exists between two variables: (a) variable X causes variable Y, (b) variable Y causes variable X, or (c) a third variable explains both variable X & Y.

Example: See if you can spot the "correlation does not equal causation" in the opening monologue of Jimmy Fallon's "Late Night" Show.

Application: Did you find the "correlation does not equal causation". At minute 3:59, Jimmy Fallon says that a recent study from the University of New Hampshire showed that children who are spanked have lower IQs. The implicit implication is that spanking "causes" lower IQ, but is that true? There are three options: (a) spanking (variable X) could cause lower IQs (variable Y), (b) having a lower IQ could result in parents spanking the children more frequently, (c) a third variable like socio-economic status of the family could influence both spanking (because of increased violence associated with socio-economic status) and IQ (because of decreased IQ associated with diminished access to quality education in lower socio-economic status situations). Notice, that "IF" the study was an experimental design in which parents were randomly assigned to one of two conditions in which their were forced to spank their child (condition 1) or not spank their child (condition 2), then it would be possible to prove causation. Given the ethical concerns with forcing parents to spank a child, the study was not experimental, but instead surveyed parents and children across time. The result of this study were publicized across every news outlet. See for yourself whether or not these high profile news outlets correctly identified that "correlation does not equal causation" -- Time Magazine, NPR, CBS video of their Morning Show, MSNBC, Los Angeles Times, San Francisco Chronicle.

Personal Space

CIN:111222333 (10)

Definition: According to Wikipedia, personal space is the region surrounding a person that effects them psychologically in terms of it being their domain or territory, or about which they feel uncomfortable if entered by another.

Example: NPR video

Application: In the video, the interesting example of personal space, and personal space invasions, was the behavior exhibited by "avatars" in Second Life, which is a virtual world developed by Linden Lab that launched on June 23, 2003. Even though the on-screen avatars interacting with each other are not human, and are only pixles on a computer, the interaction amongst the avatars resembled real-life interactions in that when personal space was intruded by another avatar (person), the avatar would back away to regain the sense of person space. Why? The answer is that the real-life human controlling the avatar "perceives" the personal space violation even though it is not really ocuring (since the inanimate avatars can't have feelings of their own).

Crossed Categorization

CIN: 111222333(10)

Definition: Crossed categorization occurs when someone differs from us on one dimension of social categorization (outgroup member) but who is similar on another dimension (ingroup member). Crossing category memberships is argued as one way to reduce intergroup bias because the individual's self-identity is split between the multiple group memberships. In this way, sharing an in-group membership with an out-group member (crossing categories) can reduce both the differentiation between the groups (cognitive component) and the negative feelings toward the group member (affective or motivational component).

Example: Michael Jordan Mia Hamm "Michael vs Mia" Gatorade Commercial

Application: In the commercial, Michael Jordan and Mia Hamm are competing against each other in a variety of sports -- basketball, soccer, fencing, tennis, track and field, karate. Not only are they portrayed as ingroup-outgroup members along gender lines and coming from two different sports, but the background music is playing the song - "Anything you can do I can do better, I can do anything better than you." However, in the midst of the conflict they reach detente when each stops to drink Gatorade. In that sense, the ad is portraying Gatorade as the shared group membership that reduces the conflict. Using the language of crossed categorization, the I and O targets sharing a group membership become IO.

Change Blindness

CIN:111222333(10)

Definition: According to Wikipedia, change blindness is the phenomenon that occurs when a person viewing a visual scene apparently fails to detect large changes in the scene.

Example: Change Blindness

Application: The video is a mini-documentary of change blindness research at Harvard. In the video, they show actual footage from the change blindness research study in which actual subjects are videotaped unobtrusively while taking part in the study. Change blindness occurs when the subjects fail to notice the person speaking to them has changed -- the person ducked behind a counter, and a new person popped back up from under the counter, without the subjects noticing the change.

Social Roles

CIN:111222333(10)

Definition: Social roles are shared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to behave.

Example: Simpsons episode

Application: In the video, start at the beginning, and watch until minute 3:46. In the video, the current supervisor of Homer and friends at the nuclear power plant retires. Mr. Burns decides to hire from within and appoint Carl as the new supervisor of Section 7G. Immediately upon being given the position, Carl instantly transforms from (a) the carefree neer-do-well who was previously daydreaming about driving a mini Cooper through the powerplant in a car chase with his buddies, Homer and Lenny; to (b) the uptight boss who sees himself as "King" of his buddies, and who proceeds to admonish them for the childish behavior he once engaged in. Similar to the Stanford Prison Experiment, he adopted the role he was given.

Group Think

CIN:111222333(10)

Definition: Group think is a kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner.

Example: Simpsons episode

Application: In the video, start at 3:46 and end at 4:48 . In the video, Marge and other women from the show are part of "Springfield Charity Chicks" with intent to raise money through fund raising. One proposal is to replicate the "beefcake" calendar from the Police Department, but using the "Charity Chicks" instead. Every single person in the group unanimously agrees with their "great idea" even though a little introspective and reflection would indicate that they may not be the best candidates for a pin up calendar. Instead, each goes along with the group mind.

Schemas

CIN:111222333(10)

Definition: Mental structures that organize our knowledge about the social world. These mental structures influence the information we notice, think about, and remember. It encompasses our knowledge about many things-other people, ourselves, social roles and specific events. Commonly referred to as stereotypes.

Example: http://www.hulu.com/watch/109160/parks-and-recreation-hunting-trip

Application: Watch from 15:55 to 17:59. In the video, Amy Poehler, the main character, takes the blame for accidentally shooting a co-worker in the back of the head. A park ranger comes to investigate, and clearly shows his bias toward women hunters. Even though she is innocent, in order to take the blame for the accident, and thus save her guilty co-worker from going to jail, Amy Poehler has to convince the biased park ranger that she did in fact shoot the person in the back of the head. To do so, plays to his stereotypes of women hunters as having tunnel vision, hysterical, emotional, thinking with her 'lady parts', and variety of other hilarious stereotypes.

Social Facilitation

CIN: 221130092 (10)

Definition: The tendency for people to do worse on complex tasks and better on simple tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated.

Example: Dirty Dancing

Application: The performance begins around 15:16. In this scenario, Baby and Johnny Castle are dancing for a crowd. During their previous practices, Baby has done fairly well with the dance and begins to recite the proper moves before the performance. However, once she's placed in front of the crowd, she performs it worse and flubs a few times. According to social facilitation, this is because she is new to dancing and it's a complex task for her. Contrastingly, Johnny Castle does very well with the dance, perhaps better than the practices, since he's been dancing for years; the task is simple for him.

Social Influence

CIN: 300872317 (10)

Definition: Social Influence: The effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behavior

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Efc0p0GASFY

Application: As I watched this video, I wondered if I was looking at the future of the children witnessing the behaviors or if I was looking at the past of the adult. How much and up to what extent social influences shape the way by which individuals understand and interpret the world around them? In this video the actions, words, behavior, feelings and attitudes of adults are copy by children. Although social influences can be based either on faulty or non-faulty models according to one's cultural differences and beliefs; there are non the less the standards by which individuals will measure and judge the world. Social influences can last long after those who set precedent are gone, and are present every second of one's life. For example a woman might choose not to encourage her own daughters educational goals, not because she doubts her daughter's competence, but because she learned early in life that women should not "waste" their time pursuing such venue.

Schemas

CIN:220844466 (10)

Definition: Mental structures that organize our knowledge about the social world. These mental structures influence the information we notice, think about, and remember. It encompasses our knowledge about many things-other people, ourselves, social roles and specific events. Commonly referred to as stereotypes.'''

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T6gva6Sz67A 3:23

Application: This part in Mean Girls displays the schema (stereotype) that all Africans are the same color, when in fact Africa is a very diverse continent like any other. Stereotypes can be applied rapidly and automatically when we encounter other people, as seen in this clip.

Justification of Effort

CIN:221130092(10)

Definition:The tendency for indiciduals to increase their liking for something they have worked hard to attain.

Example: Saw 1

Application: The Saw series follows an elderly cancer patient, John Kramer, who has decided that it is his duty to test the fabric of humanity and make people grateful for their lives. To reach these goals, he places his victim(s) in a room and gives them a life-threatening situation. If they neutralize the situation in time, they are permitted to go freely. If they fail the "game", they die. The first victim to survive was called Amanda and although she initially was fearful and resentful, when she came out of the life threatening situation, she claimed that this situation "helped [her]". There were no persuasive arguments used and no communication between her and Kramer (the initiator of this "game")besides a video and a casette tape, which explained the rules for his game. According to the justification for effort concept, she was more likely to agree with the message behind this game and appreciate her life since she was forced to work for it. Amanda had to find different clues and kill a man to keep her life; thus, she appreciated her life and the "game" at the end. In the next movie she even decided to carry on Kramer's work when he passed on.

Fear-Arousing Communications

CIN:220844466(10)

Definition:Persuasive messages that attempt to change people's attitudes by arousing their fears.

Example:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DGE8LzRaySk

Application:This is a public service announcement that took the Fear-Arousing Communications approach to try to get people to stop texting while driving. The extreme graphic content of the injured people and terrible car crash not only instills fear in the viewer, but also emotions for the others that were hurt and possibly killed in the car accident. Emotions also arise while watching the dead baby, and the small child asking for her parents to wake up. Parents also fear for the life of their teens that are texting while driving because of the harm that they can do to themselves, and others with them and other cars around them. This video uses a persuasive message by stirring up fear in attempt to change people's attitudes.

Cognitive Dissonance

CIN: 300872317(10)

Definition: The feeling of discomfort caused by information that is discrepant from your customary, typically positive, self-concept. It is most powerful when we perform an action that threatens our self image.

Example:[1]

Application In a past episode one of the doctors is treating a foreign dictator who is about to perpetrate a genocide act. The Dr. instead of treating the dictator kills him, believing that he is committing a good deed. Since than his "conscious" is troubling him and as a consequence his job performance and emotional relationships have deteriorated. He is told to find help. The scene evolves between the Dr. and a priest as he is trying to find a way to be exonerated from his act (please watch from 35:32-37:43 minutes)

Cognitive Dissonance

CIN: 300450922(10)

Definition: Cognitive dissonance is a drive or feeling of discomfort, originally caused by holding two or more inconsistent cognitions.

Example:http://www.hulu.com/watch/107912/the-office-double-date---tacos

Application: In this episode of "The Office" Andy is experiencing cognitive dissonance in regard to his feelings about his co-worker Dwight. Andy and Dwight used to be rivals, but since Dwight was doing favors for everyone Andy felt obligated to reciprocate the gesture. Since Andy could not dislike Dwight and feel comfortable about repaying the favor, he felt compelled to relieve the dissonance. To do so, he justified his actions by changing his negative opinion of Dwight and trying to convince the others to do the same.

Reciprocation

CIN: 300450922(10)

Definition: According to the princibles of persuasion, reciprocaton is the tendency to feel obligated to return a favor that you received from another person.

Example: http://www.hulu.com/watch/105832/the-office-double-date

Application: In this episode of "The Office" Dwight decides to use his salesman skills of persuasion on his fellow co-workers. By employing the principle of reciprocation, Dwight buys bagels for everyone in the office in hopes that they will feel obligated to repay the favor by helping him get his rival fired. Unfortunately, his plan is foiled by another co-worker who has to relieve his cognitive dissonance and repay the favor right way.

Thought Suppression

CIN: 221130092(10)

Definition: The attempt to avoid thinking about something we would prefer to forget.

Example: Mysterious Skin Part 1 Mysterious Skin Part 2

Application: In this movie, Brian Lackey and Neil McCormick are both sexually abused by their baseball coach. The progression of the movie sees them become young adults and follows the effects of their abuse as young children. At about 4:34 of Part 1, we see that Brian Lackey suffers from memory loss and has strange fits. He has a strange memory of a "UFO" and attributes his unexplained behaviors to this event. At 33:00 he dreams of aliens, whom he believes are connected with his forgotten past. In Part 2 at 43:33, he slowly begins to remember as Neil McCormick recounts the past for him. According to thought suppression, Brian's behavior was twofold. First is the monitoring process, an automated search for unwanted thoughts that could surface in the conscious mind. Second is the operating process, a typically controlled instance in which the individual searches for something else to focus on. For Brian, this was his irregular behavior and the aliens. He would black out, get nosebleeds, and dream of aliens so he didn't have to remember his abuse as a child.

Product Placement

CIN: 220844466(10)

Definition: Product placement is when advertisers pay the makers of TV shows or movies to incorporate their product into the script

Example: http://watchheroesstreaming.com/episodes/103_heroes_onegiantleap_megavideo.html (37 min)

Application: This is an example of product placement because, Hiro, the character in the scene is asking for the particular brand and model of a car. The car is mentioned several times within this clip. Nissan is also mentioned throughout many seasons of this show because of the endorsements that Heroes has with Nissan.

Diffusion of Responsibility

CIN: 221130092(10)

Definition: The phenomenon whereby each bystander's sense of responsibility to help decreases as the number of witnesses increases.

Example: That 70's Show: Dine and Dash

Application: The gang goes to a restaurant and everyone discovers that no one has money with them. Everyone has assumed that someone else was going to pay for it. No one assumes responsibility since there are six of them there. One by one (around 10:20), everyone begins to ditch, leaving the responsibility to the remaining people. This is diffusion of responsibility, because no one feels responsible in the beginning, but as the gang thins out, the friends get more tense.

Impact Bias

CIN:221079623(10)

Definition: Impact Bias is people's tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of their reaction to future negative events.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mJ3KhaIATlA

Application: In this You Tube video we see between seconds 48-to-58 how the citizens of a town in Texas are alerted, concerned, and reacting to (the actual) Erin Brokovitch. She is talking to them of the toxic chemicals in their soil, notwithstanding she solved a similar issue in a town in California. The result of their dissonance turns out to be a support of Brokovich's actions.

Ingratiation

CIN: 300951123(10)

Definition: Ingratiation is the process whereby people flatter, praise, and generally try to make themselves likeable to another person often of higher status.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UtBtvJWOqDM&feature=related

Application: In this episode Rachel (Jennifer Aniston) tries to make herself likeable by smoking in front of her boss and coworker even though she does not smoke. At first she says she does not smoke but when she notices her bosses reaction she says she is just kidding. She maybe thought if she said, she does not smoke they were not going to like her or consider her part of the crowd with the boss.

Fear-Arousing Communications

CIN: 300951123(10)

Definition: Fear-Arousing Communications is when persuasive messages attempt to change peoples attitudes by arousing their fears.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yMzv_rnU5l0

Application: In this infomercial they use fear-arousing communication by trying to make people buy the blanket by reducing the price if they call now and place the order. Also, they add a bonus of a paper clip to try to make the people think they are getting a good deal. A person debetating to buy the blanket or not may decide to buy the blanket when he/she views this infomercial because he/she may think "if i do not buy it now i will pay more later".

Hostile Aggression

CIN: 220844466(10)

Definition: Aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gCeseutvrrQ (7:40)

Application: Carl's wife had just died and the city was trying to buy Carl's property to expand to build an office where his house was. As the construction went on, the mailbox that Carl had painted with his deceased wife was run over by a construction vehicle. This angered Carl and led him to act aggressively. In contrast instrumental aggression is aggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain.

Social Facilitation

CIN: 201026130(8)

Definition: It is the tendency for people to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be elevated.

Example: [2]

Application: In this scene Ross and Monica are eagerly trying to get noticed by the event coordinator in order to be put on the platform for more TV expossure. According to social facilitation they are performing better in the presence of others because of a routine they feel confident and know so well. The fact that there were people around did not bother them because their main goal is to get on that platform.

Schemas

CIN:201026130(8)

Definition:According to the book, are mental structures that organize our knowledge about the social world. Also referred to as stereotypes

Example:[3]

Application:In this clip, it is diversity day in the office. Michael attempts to have a conversation with Kelly by using his personal knowledge of the social world. In this case, Michael goes to far by speaking in the assumed cultural accent and mentions working in a convenient store. This offends Kelly and therefore ends up getting slapped.

Instrumental Aggression

CIN: 221130092(8)

Definition: Aggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain.

Example: King of the Hill: Bobby Goes Nuts

Application: In this episode of King of the Hill, Bobby gets bullied and at one point, goes to detention. As he is making his way (around 1:45 in the video), another older boy tells him "another way out": beating up the largest boy in the room to establish a hierarchy so that no one will bully him. This is instrumental aggression because Bobby is not beating up the largest boy to be malicious or cause pain; he is merely trying to prevent further trouble for himself.

Self-affirmation theory

CIN:221858308(8)

Definition: self-affirmation theory: the idea that people will reduce the impact if a dissonance-arousing threat their self-concept by focusing on and affirming their competence on some dimension unrelated to the threat.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6lPRqKuC-MY

Application:as I was watching the interview between kerry King and Kate from the reality show Jon & Kate plus 8, I was thinking how many times we try to reduce our dissonance by reaffirming our competence with personal characteristics that we consider that support our self-image even thought they are not related with our current behavior. In the past several months, Kate a mother of eight children has been constantly critized about her divorce with her husband Jon. In addition, kate has been also critized of exploiting her kids for personal profit by make them participate in a reality show. In this interview she constantly reduce her dissonance by affirming that even though they were experiencing a turmoil situation with all the media criticism about the show and her divorce, she states that her kids are safe and happy, that she works at home, so she can see them and that everything she does is for them. Kate's image was threaten, so she claims many statements to enhance her self-image and to avoid the discomfort of experiencing cognitive dissonance.

Nonverbal Behaviors

CIN:221858308(8)

Definition: nonverbal behaviors: they are universal and can be body movement or position, facial expressions, tone of voice. There are six major emotional expressions (anger, happiness, surprise, fear ,disgust, and sadness). we use these emotional expressions as tools for social interaction.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wJ52jabfQhk&feature=related

Application:when I was watching desperate housewives video, I became aware about how we use our body to communicate different emotions. it is surprising how can we interact with other people just by a look or body movement. This video of desperate housewives is a type of summary of different scenes where the actors and mostly the actresses used their body movement and facial expression to express their feelings and desires. This video is a good representation of nonverbal expression as a tool for interpersonal relationships.

Informational Social Influence

CIN:221041572(8)

Definition: Informational Social Influence: the influence of other people that leads to conform because we see them as a source of information to guide our behaviors.

Example:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SGN0S65bUao

Application: After having read about the Mc Donalds situation in the beginning of ch. 8 about how powerful social influence plays a role especially when an authority figure gives an order, I immediately thought about the movie CRASH. Where an African American couple sitting in their car were approached by two policemen. Not knowing what the wrong doing was, the couple were told to get out of the car. They obeyed, but did not have a clue what would happen. After doing the "search" technique for any weapons or harmful objects, they approached to the woman, this turned out to be abuse from the policeman to the obedient citizen because she couldn't rebel against an authority person. Also, obedient was shown on the behalf of the husband because didn't want to make things worse. Since it was pretty much the word of the policemen against 2 minority individuals.

Social Norms

CIN: 201026130(8)

Definition: According to the text, it is the implicit or explicit rules a group has for the acceptable behaviors, values, and beliefs of its members

Example: [4]

Application:In this scene the character Kramer attends an aids walk-a-thon. Here, he is surrounded by supporters of aids awareness and to demonstrate your support it is an implicit rule that one must wear a ribbon. Because Kramer has refused to wear the ribbon, it has interrupted the social norms of the traditional symbol for this event.

Diffusion of Responsibility

CIN: 300872317(8)

Definition: Diffusion Responsibility: The phenomenon whereby each bystander's sense of responsibility to help decreases as the number of witnesses increases.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PN_JkGnnUTo&feature=related

Application: A male bystander refuses to help a woman who is being brutally beaten even after his female companion urged him to aid her. Only the female bystander helped the victim. Notice that the male bystander walks away and does not attempted to restrain the male abuser. Several other people appeared but none feels compelled to help. Out of the three people in position to help the woman only one ultimately does. What is even more disturbing are the comments posted by those who watched the video.

Diffusion of responsibility

CIN: 220700894(8)

Definition: Diffusion of responsibility according to Wikipedia is a phenomennon in which occurs in larger groups of people when responsibility is not explicitly assigned. Even though a situation may be interpreted as an emergency, the responsibility or need for the bystander to report decreases as the number of bystanders increases.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=luBdcy6XwiA

Application: A man crosses the street and is run over by a car. Although people have witnessed this, nobody approaches the man to try to help. Instead, the witnesses stand around and watch in amazement. As the crowd gets larger, they approach the body of the man lying on the floor, however nobody does much more than that. In addition, cars go around the body as if the man was some sort of road kill in their way! Very SAD!

Transformation Leaders

CIN: 221858308(8)

Definition: Transformation Leaders: Leaders who inspire followers to focus on common, long term goals.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x1L8y-MX3pg&feature=fvw

Application: This is a video where Martin Luther King is giving is last speech. He was a great leader who inspired people to follow his ideas of fighting for equal rights. he was the precursor of the right civil movement in the 1960s.

Authority

CIN: 221858308(8)

Definition: Authority: strong pressure within our society for compliance when requested by an authority figure.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QP8XU7ZLS5o

Application:In this make up commercial,covergirl company used the singer Rihana which is consider a celebrity as an authority figure to promote its products. the purpose of the commercial is to make women feel that they can look like Rihana if they use the product.

Reciprocation: That's-Not-All

CIN: 221858308(8)

Definition: Reciprocation: the tendency to feel obligated to return a favor that they have received from another.

Example:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5XhupJ05z84

Application:in this video they trying to sell a bussines training progam online for housewives-unemployed by showing different bussiness individuals to represent the effectiveness of the progam and the benefits that an individual can obtain if a person join it. this commercial offer many options of how to become a bussiness person from your house. they are promoting fast training and easy cash with the intent to make people believe that they can make a lot of money in a short period of time.

Fear-Arousing communications

CIN:221858308(8)

Definition: Fear arousing communcation: persuasive messages that attempt to change people's attitudes by arosusing their fears.

Example:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8rSrrSTW0UU&NR=1&feature=fvwp

Application: This video is a commercial against smoking where they showed the different disease that people can develop if they smoke. many of this commercials want to make people aware about their future health if they do not quit to smoke.

Social Norms

CIN: 211010473(8)

Definition: According to the text social norms are the explicit or implicit rules a group has for the acceptable behaviors, values, and beliefs of its members (p239)

Example:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6eBbZIfLeTA

Application: This video is an example of someone disrupting a social norm. Bathroom drumming is not an acceptable behavior thus violating a social norm.

Conformity

CIN: 211010473(8)

Definition: According to the textbook conformity is a change in one's behavior due to the real or imagined influence of other people (p 231)

Example:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JsN2WUY7Bhk

Application: People conformed because they did not wish to be ridiculed or punished for being different from everyone else so they chose to dress or act the way the group (their peers)expected them to act so that they would not be rejected or thought of less by them.

Social influence

CIN: 300536176(8)

Definition: Social influence occurs when an individual's thoughts or actions are affected by other people.

Example:http://www.hulu.com/watch/107016/bones-dwarf-in-the-dirt

Application: Agent Booth has to do a recertification as a marksman. In the beginning of the episode Both is at a shooting range. He is well known for his shooting ability. When he does poorly he begins to doubt himself. Unaware of what to do he asks for advice. The advice he gets is to ask Bones to be there with him the day of his recertification. His friends believe that the presence of Bones will give him a sense of ease. Both asked her to join him. The day of his recertification Both does excellent because of the presence of Bones. (Watch the beginning of the episode it shows how bad he did and the ending shows how well he did)

Passionate Love

CIN: 211010473(8)

'Definition: Passionate love is defined as an intense longing we feel for a person, accompanied by physiological arousal (p322)

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RJ0inM5b6Tk

Application: In this clip we see how Clark and Lana's love weathered through the years and they both let their love for the other be reciprocated and they both feel great, fulfillment and ecstasy.

Cognitive Dissonace

CIN: 300490013(8)

Definition: A drive or feeling of discomfort, originally defiend as being caused by holding two or more inconsistent cognitions and subsequently defiened as being caused by performing an action that is discrepant from one's customary, typically positive self-conception.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_fYpADFLJl0

Application: The woman in the video consider herself as a beautiful, smart, and confident person, who expect her date to call her. Unfortunately, her date did not call her, so she produced cognitive dissonace. She tried to reduce cognitive dissonace by adding new cognitions like he may lost her number, were out of town, or got hit by a car.

Nonverbal Behaviors

CIN: 300490013(8)

Definition: Nonverbal behaviors are universal and can be body movement or position, facial expressions, tone of voice. There are six major emotional expressions (anger, happiness, surprise, fear ,disgust, and sadness). we use these emotional expressions as tools for social interaction.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U2knMrtigKM

Application: FBI agents do the profiling by noticing their target's non-verbal behaviors.

Product Placement

CIN: 300490013(8)

Definition: Product placement is when advertisers pay the makers of TV shows or movies to incorporate their product into the script

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l6JOIMwKuuQ&feature=related

Application: In this video, Carrie is using mac system, and it take a clear shot on the apple logo.

Product Placement

CIN: 201026130(8)

Definition: According to the book, Product Placement is when the advertisers pay TV shows or movies to incorporate their product into the script.

Example:[5]

Application: In this scene Wayne's manager is talking to him about the sponsors for his show. He expresses how he does not want to incorperate them in the show. Ironically, through out the scene you can clearly see who were the sponsors for the actual movie.

Personal Space

CIN: 300490013 (8)

Definition: Personal space is the region surrounding a person that effects them psychologically in terms of it being their domain or territory, or about which they feel uncomfortable if entered by another.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AeNGSZK01Hs

Application: Hamish and Andy in the video try to invade people's personal space by following them really close.

Ben Franklin Effect

CIN: 201026130(8)

Definition: According to the book the Ben Franklin Effect is when a person induces someone to do them a favor in order to get them to like you. Dissonance theory predicts that we will like the person more after doing favor.

Example:[6]

Application: In the episode of The Office, Dwight enters the office with a box of bagels that he suspeciasly begins to share with his co-workers. As his co-workers take one and thank him, Dwight responds with a vicious tone and says "you owe me." By Dwight sharing bagels with the others he expects them to return the favor.

Prosocial Behavior

CIN: 211010473(8)

Definition: Prosocial behavior is defined as any act that is performed with the goal of benefiting another person

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bW2RW0-__rA

Application: This clip show having a father who is actively around will benefit the well being of the child.

Lowballing

CIN: 220505192(8)

Definition: An unscrupulous strategy whereby a salesperson induces a customer to agree to purchase a product at a very low cost, subsequently claims it was an error, and then raises the price; frequently, the customer will agree to make the purchase at the inflated price.

Example: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B000I0HYNI

Application: In this clip, the vacuum salesman shows Lucy how great the vacuum is and sales it at a low price. When Lucy agrees to purchase the vacuum, the salesperson then informs Lucy that if she buys the vacuum it is recommended that she also buys the parts that comes with the vacuum, such as the cord, the hose, the carrying case, the attachments, etc.

Construal

CIN: 220505192(8)

Definition: The way in which people perceive, comprehend, and interpret the social world.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXNd99IhdmA

Application: In this scene, Rachel is going to tell Ross (who is getting married) that she loves him, but the guy next to Rachel tells Rachel that she is doing a bad thing by ruining his marriage. The guy next to Rachel also says that Ross must love Emily, that's why he is marrying her, but Rachel doesn't see it that way. Rachel believes that Emily is just a rebound girl.

Product Placement

CIN: 220505192(8)

Definition: The appearance of a product or service in a broadcast program or movie, paid for by the manufacturer to gain exposure for the product or service. (Dictionary.com)

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d36wUmJGzvA

Application: In this clip, Jack and Liz talks about Verizon wireless being popular and that their service is better than their competitors.

Cognitive Dissonance

CIN: 220101360(8)

Definition: Cognitive Dissonance: It occurs when a person has two conflicted thoughts.it proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance by changing their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors, or by justifying or rationalizing their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.

Example: http://www.hulu.com/watch/103270/heroes-tabula-rasa#s-p2-so-i0

Application:Here the character named "Sylar: lost his memories. The circus leader ask another circus member that has the power to restore memories to help him. Sylar leaves the mirror room that has shown him that he has been a killer. But he feels that he is not one because he is a good person. The circus leader is forcing Sylar to remember he was a killer so that he can remain in the circus. Start it around 29:37-3216. When Sylar is trying hard to kill, he stops because he feels and thinks he is a good man.

Schemas

CIN: 220862185(8)

Definition: Schemas are a mental represention of the world

Example: http://wtso.net/movie/340-1220%20Children%20of%20a%20Lesser%20Clod.html

Application: In season 12 episode 20 of The Simpsons, Homer demostrates an example of a schema by applying it to his friend Carl while playing a game of basketball. When it's Carl's turn to shoot the ball, Homer right away assumes that Carl will be good at the game because he is African American. Homer: "Woo! You da man CARL! I believe you can FLY!" Carl: "Boy, I am so sick of everyone assuming I'm good at Basketball because I'm African-American"

Bystander Effect

CIN: 221579575(8)

Definition: Bystander Effect: The Finding that the greater the number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help.

Example: Woman Lies on Floor For Hour Without Help and Dies - [7]

Application: A 49-year-old psychiatric patient, had been in a waiting room at the city-owned hospital for nearly 24 hours when she collapsed. Neither fellow patients nor the hospital's staff moved to help her, even as she thrashed her legs on the floor and tried to get up. Two security guards and a member of the hospital's medical staff can be seen on the video stopping to look at her briefly before walking away.

Persuasion

CIN: 220862185(8)

Definition: principal of persuassion- attacking emotions to act in a certain way-in this case by adding guilt

Example: time: 1:55 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lyowX_gvCrY

Application: In this episode of Dragon Ball Z, while fighting Cell, Goku tells his son Gohan that he has to use his emotions to be able to destroy the enemy. Goku tries to use the emotion factor to change Gohan into to act in a different way. While listening to Goku, Gohan starts thinking of all the consequences that might occur if he doesn't defeat Cell. Gohan starts building up guilt thinking that all this is his fault for not defeating Cell the first time. With all this emotions building up, Gohan is able to built up enough power to defeat Cell.

Social impact bias

CIN: 300536176(8)

Definition: Social impact bias refers to the idea that conforming to social influence depends on the strength of the group’s importance, its immediacy, and the number of people in the group.

Example: http://www.hulu.com/watch/109442/house-teamwork 36:00

Application:Chase and his wife decide to leave the hospital. Their relationship has had many downward slopes and leaving the group would be in their best interest for their relationship. At the end of the episode chase decides he wants to stay. He states that the group is important to him. The work he does, saving lives, is important to him. Therefore it is in his best interest to stay.

Social impact bias

CIN:300536176 (8)

Definition: Social impact bias refers to the idea that conforming to social influence depends on the strength of the group’s importance, its immediacy, and the number of people in the group.

Example: http://www.hulu.com/watch/40895/movie-trailers-house-bunny

Application:In the movie House Bunny, Shelly as well as the sorority sisters display social impact bias. Shelly conforms to the social influences of the sorority. She changes her appearance, no longer dresses like a Play Boy bunny, and tries to be more like her sisters, book smart. The sorority sisters change their appearance to be more like Shelly’s. Instead of being the ugly duckling on campus they transform themselves in to beautiful women, by changing their clothes and by the use of make-up.

Social influence

CIN:300536176 (8)

Definition: Social influence is defined as the effect that the words, actions or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behavior.

Example: http://www.hulu.com/watch/107036/glee-wheels watch 29:00-32:00 and 38:00

Application:Kirk has just told his dad that he is gay. Although his dad supports him he knows that the outside world would not be as accepting. Kirk audition for the leading solo. Before the audition he does well on his task he hits all his notes. They day of the audition he does poorly. No its not social facilitation. He purposely does poorly. If he won the audition he would have sing in front of the school and there could be the possibility of his father being ridiculed. They day before the audition his dad received a phone call telling him that his son is gay. Kirk purposely does poor because he doesn’t want his sexuality to upset his father. He does it out of the kindness of his hear.

Schema

CIN:300536176 (8)

Definition: Schema is defined as mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects and that influence the information people notice, think about, and remember. Schemas are commonly referred to as stereotypes. Stereotypes are defined as a generalization about a group of people in which certain traits are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members.

Example: http://www.hulu.com/watch/107036/glee-wheels watch at 28:00 to 29:25 and 35:00 to 37:00

Application:Sue in the TV show Glee is portrayed as a hard ass and a “Bitch.” All of the teachers view her in that manner. She makes everyone’s life a living hell. In this particular episode Sue is asked to do tryouts for a cheerleader. At the tryouts she chooses a handicap student to join her squad. Will believes that she is up to no good. He even goes to the principal to let him know that something must be wrong with her and that she is up to no good. Due to the stereotype that sue is a mean individual they believe that she always has bad intentions. What they don’t know is that Sue’s sister is handicap. She has fondness towards her new cheerleader, as opposed to wanting to be cruel to her as everyone else believes.

personal space

CIN: 221579575(8)

Definition: According to Answers.com, personal space is the region surrounding a person which they regard as psychologically theirs. Invasion of personal space often leads to discomfort, anger, or anxiety on the part of the victim.

Example: HSBC bank commercial- Media:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sLLTQgQHClI

Application: In this commercial HSBC bank is attempting to illustrated that different parts of the world have different needs. In Mexico, the relationship is marked by close acquaintance, therefore building a closer relationship with you.

Bystander Effect

CIN: 300490013 (8)

Definition: The greater number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KIvGIwLcIuw&feature=related

Application: People did not help the girl in this video because they assumed someone esle was going to help her.

SCHEMAS

CIN: 220660139 (8)

Definition: According to the book, schemas are "mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects and that influence the information people notice, think about, and remember."

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ajpLXRCJ9lM

Application: this clip, it was said that there was a study were the participants looked at a false office for 35 seconds and then they (the participants) recall what they saw at the false office. It was stated that the participants remembered typical office items and forgot incompatible items. Also, participants recalled items that were not at the false office. This is a good example of schemas because the participant used their knowledge about what they knew about offices and this influenced the information people noticed about the false office. Participants recalled items that were not in the fake office because according to schemas, those items are in a typical office.

NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION

CIN:220660139 (8)

Definition: According to the book, nonverbal communication “refers to how people communicate, intentionally, or unintentionally, without words.”

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VfDWQG47pAQ

Application: In this clip, we can see that people make gestures. Specially, we see a woman and a man looking at each other but they don’t say anything to each other. They are just communication with each other with eye gaze and facial expression, they are not using words. In the video, it looks like if the man wants to talk to the woman because he may be thinking that she is cute. It looks like he thinks that she is cute just by the way he is looking at the woman.

PERSONAL SPACE

CIN: 220700894(8)

Definition: According to Wikipedia Personal Space is the region surrounding a person which they regard as psychologically theirs. Invasion of personal space may lead to discomfort on the part of the victim.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AeNGSZK01Hs

Application: In this video a man invades the personal space of others. He follows them very closely until they turn to look at him in disapproval. Once the "victims" stare in disapproval, the man stops invading their personal space.

SCHEMAS

CIN: 220700894(8)

Definition: According to the book, schemas are mental structures that people use to organize their knowledge about themselves and that influence what they notice, think about, and remember.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=esKwU3BrUfM&feature=PlayList&p=999F291DE03BD4FA&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=44

Application: In this video, Carlos Mencia's schemas about Asians are at work. He mentions that they are really smart and that in order to do well on a test one must have an Asian person take the test so that one can get an "A" grade.

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

CIN: 300293725(8)

Definition: The case whereby people have an expectation about what another person is like, which influences how they act toward that person, which causes that person to behave consistently with people's original expectations, making the expectations come true.

Example: Grey's Anatomy Season 6, Episode 10. http://www.imdb.com/video/hulu/vi2573010201/ (1:49-2:50)

Application: Chief of Surgery, Dr. Richard Webber believes that like her mother Dr. Meredith is a talented surgeon. Not only does he let her know he belives her talent is extraordinary but he also offers to mentor her. By tutoring Dr. Meredith on a one on one basis he makes his expectations come true by helping her to become a better doctor.

PRODUCT PLACEMENT

CIN: 220700894(8)

Definition: The book describes Product Placement as advertisers who pay TV shows or movies to incorporate their product into the script.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X0z1KIyhIc0&playnext=1&p=982E4B6C18622C83&index=1&feature=PlayList&playnext_from=PL&ytsession=208RUHt8eD2z-JJE3cJskMaxA2Jt9MTYWZMupkk5C6a_ZEzSL7c5bZP52hTwLwsGP1GL7RrSlwR9cpLwIzYnb4mr8GjQaTWy0g9PjD1q28J9EFMs7HACZ5aZeYelWcH7VDSdF0y8c51Uzzt8oTk2nGMm4jN2Okr0duNCcVHtLrAISYH0xGW38rY_--npMFg0oEH7lWRYKrkzqrMlhKkcQQgH7thjmK0T_M5fCHt4EQfOI8jh0WkVHignUqg1F91MSuKp-1pLWJBAu8LuJNFh8oqWjgGxdSjaIcuFFO2eKi4WHAX_lkdyy9Gyq8PbrWC5FLZAYq_cAyXjxqQutPSFztzNkVU-4s5A start it at 4min and 8 seconds

Application: In the 70's show, Lori wants to borrow Eric' Vista Cruiser. When the dad hears this he says no, because "it's old and undependable. It could break down and you could be at the mercy of any maniac who came along." So instead he tells his daughter Lori to take the TOYOTA, implying that Toyotas are reliable and safe!

FEAR AROUSING COMMUNICATION

CIN: 220700894(8)

Definition: Fear Arousing Communication are persuasive messages that attempt to change people's attitudes by arousing their fears.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MeBt2xouWbY

Application: The Brinks commercial is about home security. It arouses fear in people by showing that we are vulnerable to break-ins. The man attempting to break in is in dark clothing; he throws something at the window to break it. The woman in the commercial gasps when she sees this, you can feel her fear as she runs to lock herself in the restroom. This ad arouses fear in us by making us vulnerable to theft, and then provides us with a solution (changes our mind); we can be safe...as long as we buy their home security system.

Influence by Emotion

CIN: 300293725(8)

Definition: Emotions can act as motivation to act in a certain way.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y_LX7nnezFA

Application:In this commercial for St Jude we are influenced to feel guilt and fear. We are evoked to feel fear because we are told that one day we might have a sick child and need the help of St. Jude. By stating "Give thanks for the healthy kids in your life..." we are promt to feel guilty for having healhty kids. To eliminate the feeling of guilt and fear we are asked to donate money to St Jude so that they can help those who have sick children.

Hostile Aggression

CIN: 220660139 (8)

Definition:According to the book, hostile aggression “is an act of aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain or injury.”

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LjkkCvfi5lM

Application: In this clip, we can see two girls fighting. According to hostile aggression, these girls are injuring each and it seems that they are very angry. These girls are really hitting each other very hard and they are causing pain to each other.

Altruism

CIN: 220660139 (8)

Definition: According to the book, altruism means “the desire to help another person even if it involves a cost to the helper.”

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H37wQ3YEpWA

Application: In this clip, we can see that the Firefighters were helping people that were in the twin towers in the attacks of 9/11. Helping people involved a cost to the firemen because the firemen putted themselves in danger in order to help other people.

Hostile Aggression

CIN:221559893 (8)

Definition: Hostile aggression: it is an act of aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain or injury.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rnpVUAow-T8

Application: In the show Ross is angry at Joey for "accidentally proposing" to Rachel. He was feeling angry because Joey did not tell him that he had proposed to her. Joey was asking Ross to hit him and he kept on insisting until Ross finally hit him. Ross felt angry and he wanted to inflict pain on Joey because if Ross would not have not felt angry Ross would not have tried to hit Joey.

False Consensus Effect

CIN: 220660139 (8)

Definition: According to Wikipedia.org, false consensus effect “is the tendency for people to project their way of thinking onto other people, they assume that everyone else thinks the same way they do”

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7dJLzXFOC_I

Application: In this clip, we can see that the chocolate man is trying to take the little boy with him to the factory. The chocolate man telling the little boy beautiful things about the chocolate and that he (the little boy) will be good without his family. According to false consensus, the chocolate man is assuming that children like the little boy will live his family in order to be in the chocolate factory. It turns out that the boy doesn’t think like the man and the little boy tells the man that he will not live his family, not for all the chocolate in the word. The little boy doesn’t care about the chocolate, he cares about his family. The man assumed wrong and he even says that is weird that the little boy doesn’t wants to go with him.

Fear-Arousing Communication

CIN: 221608565(8)

Definition: Persuasive messages that attempt to change people's attitudes by arousing their fears.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qpYq9CBZoKQ

Application:This is a video that used fear-arousing communication to change the viewers attitude to not drink and drive. In the video the woman is talking to the driver and asking him when he will stop drinking and driving, when suddenly she is hit by a truck. This was due the driver being to drunk to notice how badly he was driving. This creates fear because it shows the viewer you will not be safe on the road if you drink and drive.

Hostile Aggression

CIN: 221608565(8)

Definition: According to the book Hostile aggression is an act of aggression steming from feelings of anger aimed at inflicting pain.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ugTeOz7rsgE

Application: In this public announcement for domestic violence, the waitress is a victim of hostile aggression. While serving one of her guest a cup of coffee, he becomes very angry, after he accused her of spilling his coffee. His reaction is to pin her down by her neck onto the table, and pour the coffee on her. Clearly attempting to inflict pain by burning her.

Product Placement

CIN: 221608565(8)

Definition: Product placement is when advertisers pay the makers of TV shows or movie to incorporate their product into the script.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4LFQIoc49ZM

Application:In the movie Transformer's product placement is used throghout the entire movie. The main one was General Motors with the placement of their Chevrolet Camaro. This car was not on the market yet, but the product was placed by their adverstisers to indroduce a new car and its performance.

Cognitive Dissonance

CIN: 221608565 (8)

Definition: Cognitive dissonace is a drive or feeling of discomfort, originally caused by holding two or more inconsistent cognitions.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n6AMbJ3_YBg

Application:In this news segment by Golf Central a statement by Tiger Woods reveales the cognitive dissonance that he is feeling with his alleged infidelity. In the statement he states "he let his family down and his values". His belief that he is a good family man, is conflicting with his behavior of infidelity which is creating the dissonance. He is attempting to decrease his dissonace by placing this statement of apology.

Bystander Effect

CIN: 221608565 (8)

Definition: The finding that the greater the number of bystanders who witness an emergency , the less likely any one of them is to help.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0t4wWGH51-A

Application:In this video there is man walking across the street, when suddenly he gets hit by a car. Instead of someone rushing to help him, the cars continued to drive by, and the people continued to walk pass the man laying on the street. When a car did attempt to pull to the side, it suddenly drives away, assuming someone else will help him. With plenty of bystanders no one attempted to help.

Deindividuation

CIN:300293725 (8)

Definition:The loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people can't be identified (such as when they are in a crowd), leading to an increase in impulsive and deviant acts.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1bEG2AMaM7w

Application: In this clip you see people who may not have participated in such criminal acts by themselves, such as beating others and destroying public property. They are able to participate in such acts not as individuals but as members of a large group.

Nonverbal Communication

CIN:300071763 (8)

Definition: Nonverbal Communication: The way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words, nonverbal cues include facial expression, tone of voice, gestures, body position and movement, the use of touch, and gaze.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jr_G2DOD5zk

Application: In the Dolce & Gabbana commercial we have two guys and one girl, in which they get involved with nonverbal communication. First, we have one of the guys taking the girl into a room. There, they get involved with face expressions, gestures, gaze, and the use of touch. Then, we have the second guy that comes into the picture, and he takes the girl to the sofa. There, the three of them gaze at each other, and they get involved with facial expressions, gestures, body position and movement, and the use of touch.

Pluralistic Ignorance

CIN: 300293725 (8)

Definition: Bystander's assuming that nothing is wrong in an emergency because no one else looks concerned

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UxRPxV-4vVk&feature=related

Application: In this incident it seems that no one tried helping the boy who was dangling from the ferris wheel because no one seemed worried and the situation was interpreted as a nonemergency. The people who witnessed were young and were actually amused by the situation. Tragically it was an emergency and the boy felled and died as others watched and even recorded with their cell phones.

Social Proof

CIN: 300413975 (8)

Definition: Social Proof: Social proof is looking to celebrities to justify using a certain product.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EcZOu3PoLh4

Application: The following example is a commercial for Sirius Radio, it shows differnt celebrities such as Michael Jordan, Richard Pryor, Elvis Presley & Howard Stern and says how they all changed thier respective fields. So, if one buys Sirius Radio, they will change radio just like these celebrities changed their fields.

Regret

CIN: 300413975 (8)

Definition: According to Dictionary.com, regret is a feeling of dissapointment

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f4TVRPvFGt0&NR=1

Application: In this Ally commercial, the man at the table asks the first little girl if she would like a pony, then gives her a plastic pony. He then asks the other little girl if she would like a pony, then gives the other little girl a real pony. You can see on the little girl's face that she is not happy and regretful because the man did not offer her a "real one"

Scarcity - "Limited-Time Offer"

CIN: 300413975 (8)

Definition: Scarcity is a rarity or infrequency

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nKdIKP1arF0&NR=1

Application: In this commercial for Ally, a little boy is playing with a truck for a very short amount of time. The man gives him a truck made out of paper and explains that the red truck was only a limited time offer.

Fear Arousing Communication

CIN:221559893 (8)

Definition: Fear arousing communication is the persuasive messages that attempt to change people's attitudes by arousing fears.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fD6WSk_lhQ8

Application: This commercial shows young adults smoking marijuana. The commercial provides examples of the type of behaviors a person might display while under the influence of marijuana. At the end it shows them killing a person while driving high. This creates fear arousal because you would not want to put yourself or other people in danger because of the bad decisions a person might make while under the influence of a drug. It makes a person think twice before smoking marijuana and driving, and also think twice when it makes a person behave in certain ways that will be disruptive to society. It also makes you think about the threatening situations that a person might put themselves in.

Product Placement

CIN: 300413975 (8)

Definition: According to dictionary.com product placement is the appearance of a product or service in a broadcast program or movie, paid for by the manufacturer to gain exposure for the product or service

Example:http://www.hulu.com/watch/110473/top-chef-hope-you-do-your-best-today

Application: In the clip of Top Chef, in the kitchen you can see a Glad box on the shelf in the back round. The box is shown so quickly, that if one was not paying close attention, they would miss the Glad box.

Frustration-Aggression Theory

CIN:300951123 (8)

Definition:' Frustration-Aggression Theory is the perception that you are being prevented from attaining a goal increases the probability of an aggressive response

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ck_tEdfLv6w

Application:In this movie Adam Sandler just wanted to have his head set so he can watch the movie he was just trying to have a pleasant flight; however Jack Nicolson was giving him a difficult time and so was the flight attendant by not bringing his head set. He then yells out of frustration.

Passionate Love

CIN:300951123 (8)

Definition: Passionate Love is an intense longing we feel for a person, accompanied by physiological arousal; when our love is reciprocated, we feel great fullfillment and ectasy, but when it is not, we feel sadness and despair

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_y9Vd4tGPi0&NR=1

Application: There is no better way to describe a passionate love than Romeo and Juliet. This is a scene when they first meet. The physiological arousal they both felt was strong enough to keep them together regardless of any obstacles they had to deal with.

Bystander Effect

CIN:220444560 (8)

Definition:According to the textbook, the Bystander effect is the finding that the greater the number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KIvGIwLcIuw

Application: In this example, Bill Stanton, a security specialist, put the public to the test. He was to have a seven year pretend she was being abducted by a stranger. He wanted to see if the public were to do anything, most of them just walk by and look back, but never did anything. Until finally two men confronted him. He explains when there is more people watching something go down the less likely they will take action.

Product Placement

CIN: 220444560(8)

Definition: Product placement is a promotional tactic used by marketers in which characters in a fictional play, movie, television series, or book use a real commercial product. Typically either the product and logo is shown or favorable qualities of the product are mentioned.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d36wUmJGzvA

Application: In an episode of 30 Rock, Liz and Jack are talking in his office, and he starts talking about Verizon, throughout the whole clip, they keep mentioning how great Verizon service and phone are.

Stereotype

CIN: 220444560 (8)

Definition: According to the textbook, Stereotypes, is a generalization a group of people in which certain traits are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the group.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4E9X-y3ylbY

Application:In this episode of The Office, it is diversity day. Each employee placed an index card on their forehead, symbolizing a different culture. Dwight has an Asian index card on his forehead,and Pam was giving stereotypical clues, so he can guess what culture he has.

Negotiation

CIN: 220444560 (8)

Definition: According to textbook, Negotiation, is a form of communication between opposing sides in a conflict in which offers and counteroffers are made and a solution occurs only when both parties agree.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eMgJRDSDJOU

Application:In the beginning of the clip there is a man and woman at a bar, and start talking. Throughout their conversation, both are negotiating and finally come to an agreement.

Nonverbal Communication

CIN: 220444560 (8)

Definition: In the textbook definition, Nonverbal Communication, is the way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words; nonverbal cues include facial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body position and movement, the use of touch, and gaze.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pIjMk6lHsu0

Application: Disney cartoon movies show a great example on nonverbal communications between the characters. Like in Bambi,there is different kind of emotions shown, without any dialogue. That is how most of the movie is, showing facial expressions, instead of verbal communication.

Social Influence

CIN: 300278996(8)

Definition: Occurs when an individual's thoughts or actions are affected by other people.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yFPtt7Bjjzg

Application:In this video we have a father and his young son watching a clemson college football game. As the dad yells and cheers for his team, the son imitates and roots in the same exact manner. This is evidence of a personal bond that he has established with his father and has lead him to be socially influenced. Throughout the video the son imitates the gestures and words of his father, social influence at its finest.

Product Placement

CIN:221559893 (8)

Definition:Product placement is when companies pay the makers of a TV show or movie to incorporate their product into the script.

Example:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-dNdXbIqNtY

Application: In the episode of Friends, Rachel works for Ralph Lauren which is a major clothing brand, and also sells miscellaneous things. She and Galvin both work for Ralph Lauren and Rachel comes back to work after maternity leave, and they are just mentioning that Ralph Lauren wants to do the meeting earlier because he is going to go look at helicopters to buy. Ralph Lauren is being placed in the script for advertising purposes.

Frustration Agression Theory

CIN: 300278996 (8)

Definition: When people perceive that they are being prevented from achieving a goal, their frustration is likely to turn to aggression.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2rX8XaWTUAw

Application: Here in the movie "Darknight" Batman is clearly fustrated when he interogates the Joker. He is trying to get the whereabouts of Harvy Dent, an important figure in the movie that will help batman end all the carnage. The joker is so smart and witty, and he witholds important information from batman, creating lots of frustration. Throughout the scene batman clearly turns his frustration into agression while he physically harms the joker.

Cognitive Dissonance

CIN: 219266929 (8)

Definition: According to the book cognitive dissonance is the feeling of discomfort caused by two or more inconsistent cognitions.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LVK-hVGqCpo

Application:In the movie The Box the couple is faced with a difficult decision. They are hard for money and have to make a choice between pushing the button on the box or returning it without ever pushing the button. If they push the button they will receive one million dollars and they will be responsible for the death of someone any where in the world. If they choose not to push the button they will have saved someone's life but will still be in a financial dilemma.

Stereotype

CIN: 219266929 (8)

Definition: According to the text it is a generalization about a group of people in which certain traits are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YWyI77Yh1Gg

Application: The video talks about all the stereotypes African American women face. It goes on to show how children would rather choose the white doll over the black doll, when asked why they simply stated because the black doll was 'bad' and the white doll was 'good'.

Cognitive Dissonance

CIN: 221559893(8)

Definition: A drive or feeling of discomfort, originally defined as being caused by holding two or more inconsistent cognitions and subsequently defined as being caused by performing an action that is discrepant from one's customary, typically positive self-conception.

Example:http://www.hulu.com/watch/31073/friends-the-one-after-joey-and-rachel-kiss---whats-wrong

Application: The clip shows Joey and Rachel kissing and both having Ross in their minds. Rachel use to date Ross and both Rachel and Joey are best friends with Ross. They are both experiencing cognitive dissonance because they both really like one another and both really want to kiss each other, but when they kiss they both have Ross in their minds. They think they should both talk to Ross before because they feel as if they are doing something bad. They are both experiencing cognitive dissonance because both really want to kiss each other but have the discomforting thought of Ross in their mind.

"What is beautiful is good" Stereotype"

CIN: 219266929(8)

Definition: According to the book many studies have found that physical attractiveness affects the attributions people make about the attractive. People attribute positive qualities to beautiful people that have nothing to do with their looks.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RxPZh4AnWyk

Application: Everyone expected Susan to be horrible. The look on the judges faces and those in the audience displayed how everyone was surprised she would be so good. People rolled their eyes when she came out and started talking because people judged her based on her looks before she was even given a chance to sing.

Hostile Aggression

CIN:221559893 (8)

Definition:Hostile Aggression is an act of aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain or injury.

Example:http://www.hulu.com/watch/109441/house-ignorance-is-bliss watch 25 mins.- 33 mins.

Application: In this clip House says something inappropriate to Chase about his ex girlfriend. Chase does not like what House says, he has feelings of anger and is aiming at inflicting pain or injury to House. That is why he socks House in the face.

Bystander Effect

CIN: 219266929(8)

Definition: The finding that the greater the number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help.

Example:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GiP3cfoiL_s

Application: In this video George, Jerry, Kramer, and Elaine all witness a man getting robbed and they all just stand around doing nothing but making fun of the situation.

Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis (Reformulated)

CIN: 201104702 (8)

Definition: Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis (Reformulated) states that frustration, pain, heat or any other unpleasant experience can lead to negative feeling which can lead to emotional aggression

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=muc7xqdHudI

Application: In the movie Do the Right Thing, the characters in the movies are trying to deal with the extreme heat (the hottest day of the year) while dealing with money issues, bigotry, and other issues in their daily lives. Through out the movie, the characters become more frustrated and become more aggressive including the main character, Mookie, who is also frustrated when his boss, Sal, does not pay him when he asked. The movie ends in with violence, the death of Radio Raheem, and the distruction of Sal’s pizzeria.

Group Cohesiveness

CIN:218969736 (8)

Definition: Group Cohesiveness are the qualities that bind members together to promote liking between members.

Example:http://www.hulu.com/watch/101260/the-real-housewives-of-atlanta-mission-impossible

Application: In an episode from The Real House Wives of Atlanta, second season, the episode is about NeNe and Lisa who are trying to raise money and awareness about domestic violence. The two women teamed up and sponsored a marathon that was named “Heel the Soul”. Heel the Soul was a marathon where people were encouraged to run the marathon in high heels. The people bonded together in group cohesiveness to promote awareness about domestic violence and friendship.

Social Loafing

CIN:201104702 (8)

Definition: Social Loafing is defined as the tendency for people to do worse on simple tasks but better on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance cannot be evaluated.

Example:http://www.southparkstudios.com/episodes/103883

Application: In this episode of South Park, Cartman, Stan, Kyle, and Kenny are working as a team by making money by shoveling snow around the neighbor hood. After Cartman negotiates an price with the customer and gets her to agree to pay them more, Cartman proceeds to slack off and talk on his cell phone while the others are hard at work shoveling snow.

Authority

CIN: 201104702 (8)

Definition: Authority is the strong pressure within our society for compliance when requested by an authority figure.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b0AGiq9j_Ak

Application:In this Gatorade Commercial, Michael Jordan is not only featured in this commercial, but the jingle is about him and how everyone wants to be like him. Jordan is the authority figure when it comes to being a great basketball player and the jingle suggests that if you want to be like “Mike” you should drink Gatorade.

Coping Styles

CIN: 218969736 (8)

Definition: Coping Styles are the ways in which people react to threatening events.

Example: http://www.hulu.com/watch/101858/movie-trailers-precious---trailer-2

Application: In the first ten seconds of the trailer for the movie “Precious”, you will see the main character of the movie disassociating herself from her harsh reality. Precious’ coping style in dealing with sexual abuse, physical abuse, and many other types of abuse is by day dreaming about a better tomorrow for herself!

Cognitive Dissonance

CIN: 201104702 (8)

Definition: Cognitive Dissonance is defined as a drive or feeling of discomfort, originally defined as being caused by holding two or more inconsistent cognitions and subsequently defined as being caused by performing an action that is discrepant from one’s customary, typically positive self-concept.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N5ilS0RJY5k&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yGuV6i5hGFk&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qb8EuXfLkCA

Application: In this episode, Vanessa experiences cognitive dissonance when she takes Denise's sweater without her permission and when she gets a poor grade on her history test. Vanessa tries to justify taking her Denise's sweater by stating that it was the only thing that matched her outfit for a dance. Vanessa also tries to justify her bad grade that she received on her history test by stating that she didn’t know why she got the bad grade even though she studied very hard with her boyfriend.

Availability Heuristic

CIN: 218969736 (8)

Definition: Availability Heuristic is a mental rule of thumb whereby people base a judgment on the ease with which they can bring something to mind.

Example: http://www.hulu.com/watch/44238/movie-trailers-twilight

Application: In this trailer of twilight, it shows that the character “Bella’s” only available heuristic knowledge of a vampire is that vampire’s are pale and that the skin of a vampire is ice cold. For Bella’s sake, she was correct in basing her judgments of “Edward” being a vampire. Bella’s ability to obtain the knowledge that Edward was a vampire based on only two characteristics show how availability heuristic really pays off.

Product Placement

CIN: 300278996(8)

Definition: Product placement is when companies pay the makers of a TV show or movie to incorporate their product into the script

Example: http://video.clipta.com//Megan_Fox__Transformers_car_scene__vebd5391e946a39595dbd

Application: In this scene from the movie transformers, the main character and a pretty young girl are driving in a kind of romantic scene in which the car is from the maker of Chevrolet. It clearly shows the Chevy symbol to promote the camaro, a popular model of the Chevrolet car company. The company has chosen to promote its product by incorporating it in a scene from a very popular movie.

Hostile Aggression

CIN: 300278996(8)

Definition: Aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Tt9P2qWfWg

Application: Here in the movie “King Kong” the gigantic ape is very angry and determined to destroy the T-Rex that has approached and threatened the life of the young lady. In an attempt of protection for the young lady, the huge ape pretty much rips the head off of the T-Rex, displaying hostile aggression.

Schema

CIN:218969736 (8)

Definition: Schemas are mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about social around themes or subjects and that influence the information people notice, think about, and remember.

Example: http://www.sho.com/site/video/brightcove/series/title.do?bcpid=14026996001&bclid=28210875001&bctid=28319474001

Application: HBO’s series Nurse Jackie, the is a character by the name of Dr. Cooper. In this particular episode Dr. Cooper mother is rushed to the hospital due stomach pain. To another doctor’s surprise Dr. Cooper’s second mother arrives trying to explain why she and her partner are at the hospital. The doctor who notices that Dr. Cooper has two mothers say “oh you have two mothers”, her schema of a person having one mother completely baffles her when she found out that her co worker has two mothers

Stereotype

CIN: 300278996(8)

Definition: A generalization about a group of people in which certain traits are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nc_-l5zpTWE

Application: Here in a skit from the Dave Chipelle show (lol) he comments on a couple of stereotypes about Asian and African American people. Excuse the footage he says one foul word so I have warned you, but it’s very mild. Were all adults here aren’t we? Anyways, the stereotypes he comments on are very common among people today. Look and laugh

Schema

CIN:221786769 (8)

Definition: Mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects and that influence the information people notice, think about, and remember.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cbm5EoAm1bI

Application: In this example we get to hear about Dwight's perfect date. This would be his schema about how envisions his perfect date would go. Based on dates he goes on from now on he will compare them to this schema and see how they size up and he may or may not change his schema to accommodate more realistic expectations.

Nonverbal Communication

CIN: 218969736 (8)

Definition: Nonverbal Communication is the way which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words, nonverbal cues include facial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body positions, movement, and the use of touch and gaze.

Example: http://www.hulu.com/watch/108271/movie-trailers-clash-of-the-titans

Application:In the movie “Clash of the Titans” you can clearly see great examples of nonverbal communication. Some characters are shown leaping off cliffs, while other characters hold their bodies in ways to portray that they are getting ready to do strike their opponent. In addition this movie trailer is great for showing ways of nonverbal communication because there is hardly and verbal language in the movie trailer so you have to read the nonverbal communication that the characters are showing.

Nonverbal Communication

CIN:3002932725 (8)

Definition: The way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words; nonverval cues include facial expressions, tone of voive, gestures, body position and movement, the use of touch and gaze.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X6AO9PjLFGQ&feature=PlayList&p=70C210B944115682&index=43

Application: In this cartoon we see The Pink Panther using nonverbal communication to communicate with the narrator. He nods his head to agree, he frown his eyebrows to disagree and even walks away to another room to show that he is bothered and doesn't want to hear what the narrator has to say.

Aggression

CIN: 300872371(8)

Definition: Aggressive action is intentional behavior aimed at doing harm or causing pain to another person. It is distinct from “assertiveness.” Hostile aggression is an act of aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain or injury; instrumental aggression involves an intention to hurt another as a means to some goal other than causing pain.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UjcoRFcmQuo

Application: In this case the poor old lady is rudely awaken by the motorist, he continues taunting the old lady until she reacts in an aggressive manner.

Subliminal Messages

CIN: 221786769 (8)

Definition: Words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but may nevertheless influence people's judgments, attitudes, and behaviors.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GdOd4VY6JMY

Application: There is a mosquito tone embedded in this commercial that if heard and reported there is some sort of incentive. I remember in class Dr. Stenstrom mentioning this as a form of subliminal messaging although it does not fit the definition exactly. I was able to hear the high frequency tone, though.

Propinquity effect

CIN: 300872317(8)

Definition: The people who, by chance, are the ones you see and interact with the most often are the most likely to become your friends and lovers; this is known as the propinquity effect.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9c1NmE-i4ds

Application: The propinquity effect works because of the mere exposure effect, the finding that the more exposure we have to a stimulus, the more apt we are to like it (provided the stimulus is not noxious, in which case exposure leads to greater disliking).In this case all males have a child in the same school as the lady professor. They were willing to "pick-up" a child that is clearly not theirs just so they can be closer to the attractive professor. By increasing the exposure to the professor the "fathers" also increase her "desirable" attractiveness.

Emotional Aggression

CIN: 201104702 (8)

Definition:Emotional Aggression is hurtful behavior that stems from angry feelings.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I7iMKoAVRmI

Application: In this episode of The Boondocks, a child is throwing a temper tantrum because he wants candy marshmallows and his mother doesn’t want to buy it for him. The mother tries to reason with her son and doesn’t know what to do until Robert Freeman, aka grand dad, steps in and shows her how to use a belt to punish her son in order to stop his temper tantrum (Instrumental aggression).

Mere exposure effect

CIN: 221747470(8)

Definition: According to the textbook, the mere exposure effect is finding that the more exposure we have to a stimulus the more apt we are to like it.

Example: South Park's Kick a Ginger Day leads to Hate Crimes Charges http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EBOjl8lG9GI

Application: The video illustrates that even if people could not recall the content of that specific episode, the repeated exposure led to familiarity, which then led to positive feelings for prejudices on gingers. This episode theoretically enhances our understanding of the process underlying the mere exposure effect. The seventh and eight graders in this case choose to kick their ginger classmates not only because of there familiarity, but there exposure to the South Park episode which made their classmates engage in the “Kick a Ginger Day” attacks. It seems likely that the repeated exposure to this particular episode created a sense of vague familiarity, sometimes termed perceptual fluency. This warm glow of familiarity is then mistaken for liking. When people realize that the stimulus appears familiar because they have just seen it, they do not use this sense of familiarity as a basis for their liking judgments.

Emblems

CIN: 221786769 (8)

Definition: Nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions within a given culture; they usually have direct verbal translations, such as the "OK" sign.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IAT5m2GmMSo

Application: In this video we see a montage of high-fives which in our culture represents a gesture of praise and can have a direct verbal translation of "good job!"

Aggression

CIN: 300071763(8)

Definition: Aggression: intentional behavior aimed at doing harm or causing pain to another person.

Example: http://www.hulu.com/embed/CV2vcjjILQNqpM1-100rWQ"

Application: Peter and the guys try to break Joe's leg: and this is intentional behavior by Peter and the guys because purposely they are aiming harm to Joe, although, Joe knows how to defend himself. However, the intentions on Peter and the guys to cause harm to Joe is obviously prove. In addition, to intentional behavior the pregnant lady is the one giving pain to Joe by shooting him with a gun.

Deindividuation

CIN:221747470 (8)

Definition: According to the textbook, Deindividuation is the loosening of normal on behavior when people cant be identified, leading to an increase in impulsive and deviant acts.

Example: Ku Klux Klan http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rx_iJ0vdkK8

Application:The video illustrates how regular men became deindividuation due to fact that they were in a crowd (group) and wore all white which hid their identity, also making them feel less accountable. That led to an increase in the Ku Klux Klans impulsive and deviant acts.

Bystander Effect

CIN: 221579575(8)

Definition: Bystander Effect: According to About.com it is a phenomenon in which the greater the numbers of people present, the less likely people are to help a person in distress.

Example: [8]

Application: In this video, a boy is attempting to jump a dirt ramp on his bicycle. When he lands he loses control of the bike causing it to flip over and breaking his arm. Everyone who is watching stands around and no comes over to help him.

Direct Aggression

CIN: 221579575(8)

Definition: Direct Aggression: A behavior intended to hurt someone to his or her face.

Example: [9]

Application: Hockey player puches another player (Wade Belak vs Derek Boogaard)

Indirect Aggression

CIN: 221579575(8)

Definition: Indirect Aggression: An attempt to hurt another person without obvious face to face conflict (Spreading Rumors).

Example: [10]

Application: Karen is spreading rumors about Soni;, she is slutty and no one likes her.

Subliminal Messages

CIN:221747470 (8)

Definition:According to the textbook, the definition of Subliminal Messages is words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but may nevertheless influence people’s judgments, attitudes, and behaviors.

Example:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OSAOQuLxSdY

Application:The video illustrates how fox 5 used subliminal messages as a persuasion technique during the elections. It’s said that the images are not consciously perceived but put people in a good mood and make them pay more attention to the advertisement. If this is true than the population that watch fox 5 would favor John McCain.

Social Tuning

CIN:221747470 (8)

Definition:According to the textbook, the definition of social tuning the process whereby people adopt another person’s attitudes.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wYbD5xdapms

Application:The ‘Interview with baby gangsta’ illustrates how social tuning can effect even the youngest of people. The child in this video obviously adopted the uncle’s attitudes about gangs; in addition the video illustrates life in gangs is a cycle due to social learning.

Hostile Aggression

CIN:221747470 (8)

Definition: According to the textbook, hostile aggression is aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jQGhkOGsnU

Application: This video titled “Corcoran State Prison - Inmate on Inmate” illustrates how an inmate named Glenn Robert began his violent life with gangs while in prison. Glenn joined the Aryan Brotherhood and became extremely hostilely aggressive. His hostile aggression and feelings of anger landed him in the ‘hole’ where he committed another violent crime aimed at inflicting pain where he stabbed a man over one hundred times.

Companionate Love

CIN:221786769 (8)

Definition:The intimacy and affection we feel when we deeply for a person but do not experience passion or arousal in the person's presence.

Example:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Y2C1v4mCnY

Application: Typical of arranged marriages, companionate love is often the type that comes with this sort of union. As with the example provided, the Korean couple being wed has probably never met and therefore may not be passionately aroused by each others presence, therefore the love they may eventually have for one another would most likely be companionate love.

Cognitive Dissonance

CIN:221786769(8)

Definition: A drive or feeling of discomfort, originally defined as being caused by holding two or more inconsistent cognitions and subsequently defined as being caused by performing an action that is discrepant from one's customary, typically positive self-conception.

Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CyBGRhbdfsU

Application: In this example a young man is caught by an attractive woman reading a book that portrays him in a negative light. In order to save face, he plays it off as if the book is not his and that he was telling his friend to be more mature and stop reading things like that in order to boost his self-image. His cognitive dissonance was he really liked this girl but he was reading a book that would make this girl not find him attractive so he justified his action by telling himself he wasn't reading the book at all.

asdfasdfsad

Personal tools
Namespaces
Variants
Actions
Navigation
Toolbox